相变材料(phase change materials)是一种具有特定功能的物质，它能在特定温度(相变温度)下 发生物相变化，材料的分子排列在有序与无序之间迅速转变，伴随吸收或释放热能的现象来贮存或放出热能，进而调整、控制工作源或材料周围环境温度，以实现其 特定的应用功能。目前，随着世界能源的日趋紧张，相变材料因其自身具有的特殊功能在太阳能利用、工业废热利用、节能、工程保温材料、医疗保健等领域都得到了广泛应用。
Phase change materials (phase change materials) are substances with specific functions. They can undergo phase change at a specific temperature (phase change temperature). The molecular arrangement of the material changes rapidly between order and disorder, accompanied by absorption Or the phenomenon of releasing heat energy to store or release heat energy, and then adjust and control the working source or the ambient temperature of the material to realize its specific application function. At present, as the world's energy resources are becoming more and more tense, phase change materials have been widely used in solar energy utilization, industrial waste heat utilization, energy saving, engineering insulation materials, medical care and other fields due to their special functions.
According to the application form of phase change building materials in construction, that is, according to the structure of the building, phase change building materials mainly have the following uses: Phase change energy storage gypsum board with gypsum board as the base material, mainly used as the inner wall material of the external wall (Such as phase change energy storage ceilings); use thermal insulation materials as substrates to prepare high-efficiency and energy-saving building envelopes (such as phase change energy storage wall panels); combine with indoor floors to simplify floor heating control systems (such as phase change energy storage wall panels). Variable energy storage heating floor).
Common building materials and phase change materials are made into phase change energy storage composite materials, which can reduce the weight of building materials, greatly reduce room temperature fluctuations, and improve indoor thermal comfort and energy-saving insulation performance. In the future, the research of phase-change building materials will develop towards the direction of high-efficiency composite phase-change materials. With the advancement of polymer technology, the durability and economic issues of phase change composite materials will gradually be solved, and eventually lead to its wide application in the field of building energy conservation. At the same time, the stress effect of phase change materials on the substrate structure and the measurement of thermal insulation performance will also become a new research hotspot.
Because people's awareness of energy conservation and environmental protection and environmental protection requirements in foreign countries are stronger than those in China, the actual application of phase change materials in buildings is also relatively extensive, and a complete industrial chain has been formed. The upstream is dominated by DuPont of the United States and Rubitherm of Germany, and the downstream is a variety of building materials manufacturers and ordinary users. In contrast, the development and application of phase change materials in China is relatively late, and the application in architecture is even later. However, with the government's emphasis on energy conservation and emission reduction and the improvement of the fire protection rating of building materials, the application of phase change materials in the construction field will usher in a period of rapid development.
In short, under the macro policy of building a conservation-oriented society and creating an environmental civilization, new building materials will gradually replace heavy building materials with high energy consumption, high environmental pollution and high environmental pollution. With the development of high-rise buildings, the engineering requirements for new lightweight building maintenance structures are getting higher and higher, and building energy conservation will also be paid more and more attention. These will greatly promote the development of phase change energy storage composite materials.